Dyeing in textiles is a process in which colour is transferred to a finished textile or textile material (like fibers and yarns) to add permanent and long-lasting colour. It can be done by hand or by machine. Dyes can come as powders, crystals, pastes, or liquid dispersions, and they dissolve completely in an aqueous solution like water. When the textile and the dye come into contact, the textile is completely saturated by the dye and colour. It is governed by three factors, the dye, the fiber and the dye liquor. All the three lead independent assistance which influences the technique of dyeing. A dye must be water soluble in order to dye textile materials. It may be soluble by the nature of its chemical interference.

The dyeing process can thus be considered as taking place in three phases

  • Attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the fiber
  • Penetration into the intermolecular spaces as well as diffusion through the fiber &
  • Orientation (and fixation) along with the long chain molecules.

The solution of the dye from which it is applied is called the „dye bath?. A dye may have direct „affinity? for a fiber (or vice versa) i.e., it is held by the fibre either physically (absorption) or chemically (combination) as soon as the fiber is immersed in the dye bath.

Accumulation of the dye in the fiber is a gradual process, the rate of such building up being referred to as the 'rate of dyeing'.

  1. This rate of dyeing is governed by the condition of the dye bath, namely concentration of dye, temperature, and presence of electrolytes; it is proportional to all three factors.
  2. The rate of dyeing is also influenced by the „Material to liquor? which is expressed by a fraction, e.g. 1:20, which means one part (by weight) of the textile material dyed in twenty times its weight of dye bath.
  3. The rate of dyeing decreases with increasing ratio of goods to liquor.

Basic flow diagram of dyeing textile materials:

Grey Textile Material (Fiber, Yarn, Fabric) > Singeing > Desizing > Scouring > Bleaching> Mercerizing > DYING/ PRINTING > Finishing

  • 6.0%

    Expected CAGR between 2018-2027


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Methods of Dyeing:


1) Bale Dyeing: This is a low-cost method to dye cotton cloth. The material is sent without scouring or singeing, through a cold water bath where the sized warp has affinity for the dye. Imitation chambray and comparable fabrics are often dyed this way.


2) Batik Dyeing: This is one of the oldest forms known to man. It originated in Java. Portions of the fabric are coated with wax so that only un-waxed areas will take on the dye matter. The operation may be repeated several times and several colors may used for the bizarre effects. Motifs show a mlange, mottled or streaked effect, imitated in machine printing.


3) Beam Dyeing: In this method the warp is dyed prior to weaving. It is wound onto a perforated beam and the dye is forced through the perforations thereby saturating the yarn with color.


4) Burl or speck Dyeing: This is done mostly on woolens or worsteds, colored specks and blemishes are covered by the use of special colored links which come in many colors and shades. It is a hand operation.


5) Chain Dyeing: This is used when yarns and cloth are low in tensile strength. Several cuts or pieces of cloth are tacked end-to-end and run through in a continuous chain in the dye color. This method affords high production.


6) Cross Dyeing: This is a very popular method in which varied color effects are obtained in the one dye bath for a cloth which contains fibers with varying affinities for the dye used. For example, a blue dyestuff might give nylon 6 a dark blue shade, nylon 6, 6 a light blue shade, and have no affinity for polyester area unscathed or white.


7) Jig Dyeing: This is done in a jig, kier, vat, beck or vessel in an open formation of the goods. The fabric goes from one roller to another through a deep dye bath until the desired shade is achieved.


8) Piece Dyeing: The dyeing of fabrics in the cut, bolt or piece form is called piece dyeing. It follows the weaving of the goods and provides a single color for the material, such as blue serge, a green organdy.


9) Random Dyeing: Coloring only certain designated portions of the yarn. There are three ways of doing this type of coloring:

Skeins may be tightly dyed in two or more places and dyed at one side of the dye with one color and at the other side with another one. Color may be printed onto the skeins which are spread out on the blanket fabric of the printing machine

Cones or packages of yarn on hollow spindles may be arranged to form channels through which the yarn, by means of air-operated punch, and the dyestuff are drawn through these holes by suction. The yarn in the immediate area of the punch absorbs the dye and the random effects are thereby attained

The textile dyes market is projected to grow from USD 7.8 billion in 2018 to USD 13.0 billion by 2027, at a CAGR of 6.0?tween 2018 and 2027. APAC is expected to dominate the global textile dyes market during the forecast period. 

The rise in demand for organic dyes used for sustainable textiles and clothing is driving the textile dyes market. Increase in R&D investment in non-toxic and natural dyes, constant innovation in textile chemistry, and development of dye systems that consume less water in order to prevent pollution are the major factors driving the textile dyes market.

APAC is expected to be the largest textile dyes market during the forecast period. Factors such as the growing demand for textile dyes and policies mandating the use of environment-friendly and low Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) products have led to innovation in the textile dyes industry. In addition, the strengthening economy of countries such as China and India is attracting new investments in the region. These factors are driving the growth of the textile dyes market in APAC.